Based on field and herbarium investigations, a systematic synthesis of the critical genus Cynoglossum (Boraginaceae) in Italy is
provided. Types, diagnostic characters and original iconographies are given for each native species, together with a revised
analytical key. Regional distributions are outlined and a list of selected vouchers is included. Nine species are native to the
Italian territory: Cynoglossum barbaricinum, Cynoglossum cheirifolium, Cynoglossum clandestinum, C. columnae, C. creticum, C.
magellense, C. montanum, C. nebrodense and C. officinale. A new subspecies, named C. nebrodense ssp. lucanum, is described
from some calcareous massifs in S Basilicata and N Calabria. This taxon is morphologically and geographically distinct from
the typical C. nebrodense s.str. In addition, C. dioscoridis and C. germanicum, often reported from Italy, cannot be confirmed
and are apparently to be excluded from the Italian flora. Old herbarium records of C. amabile Stapf & Drummond and C.
coelestinum Lindb. [: Paracaryopsis coelestina (Lindl.) R.R. Mill] from northeast Italy are reported for the first time, although
the presence of these two exotic species in Italy was probably occasional.